Fruit flies are pretty predictable when it comes to scheduling their days, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk and rest times in between. Now, researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Cell Reports on April 17th have found that the clusters of brain cells responsible for each of those activity peaks—known as the morning and evening oscillators, respectively—don’t work alone. For flies’ internal clocks to follow the sun, cooperation is key.
"Without proper synchronization, circadian clocks are useless or can even be deleterious to organisms," said Patrick Emery from the University of Massachusetts Medical School. "In addition, most organisms have to detect changes in day length to adapt their rhythms to seasons.
"Our work clearly shows that light is detected by individual neurons that then communicate with each other to properly define the phase of circadian behavior," he added. "This emphasizes the importance of neural interaction in the generation of properly phased circadian rhythms."
In the brains of Drosophila fruit flies, there are approximately 150 circadian neurons, explained Emery and coauthor Yong Zhang, including a small group of morning oscillators that promote activity early in the day and another group of evening oscillators that promote activity later. Morning oscillators also set the pace of molecular rhythms in other parts of the brain, and hence the phase of circadian behavior. Scientists had thought they did this by relying heavily on their own sensitivity to light—what Emery calls “cell-autonomous photoreception.” Indeed, these cells do express fruit flies’ dedicated photoreceptor Cryptochrome (CRY). But recent evidence suggested that something was missing from that simple view.
In the new study, the researchers manipulated CRY’s ability to function through another clock component, known as JET (short for Jetlag), in different circadian neurons and watched what happened. The studies show that light detection by the morning oscillators isn’t enough to keep flies going about their business in a timely way. They need those evening oscillators too.
JET’s role is bigger than expected as well. In addition to enabling cell-autonomous light sensing, the protein also allows distinct circadian neurons to talk to each other in rapid fashion after light exposure, although the researchers don’t yet know how.
The new model also suggests that flies and mammals have more similarities than had been appreciated when it comes to synchronizing their activities to the sun, the researchers say. In mammals, specific neurons of the circadian pacemaker of the brain (known as the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus or SCN) receive light input from the retina. Those cells then communicate with pacemaker neurons, which resets the circadian network as a whole.
People seldom do what they believe in. They do what is convenient, then repent.
—Bob Dylan (via awakenedvibrations)
For those of you who have people in your lives who are a psychic drain on you, this is important information!
I was recently watching Spirit Sciences on YouTube. If you haven’t yet seen any of their videos, I highly recommend them to watch, they present important information in a clear…
- The US Government: We're not going to make it federally mandatory for people to get paid a wage they can actually live off of
- The US Government: If people want to make a living, they'll just have to work 16+ hours a day
- The US Government: And if their kids end up disenfranchised because of a lack of parental involvement, well that's not our problem
- The US Government: In fact, what is our problem is creating a system that will funnel these disenfranchised youth into our prison system so they can work for corporations (that promise us money) for damn near free
- The US Government: If they don't want to fall victim to this system, then they can seek higher education
- The US Government: Except such an education will be inaccessible to most disenfranchised people and skewed in favor of the financially stable and white people
- The US Government: And we're not going to make intervention programs like sex education and conflict resolution federally mandatory, because that's the parent's job
- The US Government: The parent who is working 16 hours a day
University of Missouri researchers have previously shown that a genetic pre-disposition to be more or less motivated to exercise exists. In a new study, Frank Booth, a professor in the MU College of Veterinary Medicine, has found a potential link between the genetic pre-disposition for high…
Anonymous asked: When I was younger and danger approached me, I noticed that time slowed down. What is that? Can we control slowing down time? What about flight?
This is called Time dilation and it can happen through various circumstances. It happened to you when danger approached because it enabled an adrenal response that triggered a “fight/flight” reaction within yourself. Time dilation is also quite common if you experienced psychedelics/tryptamines, a near death experience or a car crash/terrifying life-flashing-before-your-eyes moment. To explain this we have to talk about how Time itself works and how you can experience Time dilation within altered states of consciousness.
Time itself is very fluid, past-present-future co-exist within this world.
The fundamental Components of the Universe are as follows: “
Space is the three dimensional representation of everything we observe and everything that occurs. Space allows objects to have lengths in the left/right, up/down, and forward/backward directions.
Time is a fourth dimension. In normal life, time is a tool we use to measure the procession of events of space. But time is something more. Yes, we use time as a “tool”, but time is essential for our physical existence. Space and time when used to describe events can’t be clearly separated. Therefore, space and time are woven together in a symbiotic manner. Having one without the other has no meaning in our physical world. To be redundant, without space, time would be useless to us and without time, space would be useless to us. This mutual dependence is known as the Spacetime Continuum. It means that any occurrence in our universe is an event of Space and Time. In Special Relativity, spacetime does not require the notion of a universal time component. The time component for events that are viewed by people in motion with respect to each other will be different. As you will see later, spacetime is the death of the concept of simultaneity.
Matter in the most fundamental definition is anything that takes up space. Any object you can see, touch, or move by applying a force is matter. Most people probably remember from school that matter is made up of millions of billions of tightly packed atoms. Water, for example, is the compound H2O, meaning two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom forms one molecule of water.
To fully understand matter let’s look at the atom. It is now generally accepted that atoms are made up of three particles called neutrons, protons, and electrons. The neutrons and protons are found in the nucleus (center) of the atom and the electrons reside in a shell surrounding the nucleus. Neutrons are heavy particles, but they have no charge - they are neutral. Protons are also heavy particles and they have a positive charge. Electrons are light particles and they are negatively charged. There are many important features that arise from considering the number of these particles in each atom. For example, the number of protons an atom has will determine the atom’s place on the periodic table, and it will determine how the atom behaves in the physical universe. (See the HSW article entitled “How Nuclear Radiation Works” for a further discussion of atoms and subatomic particles.)
Anything that is in the act of changing its location in space is said to be in motion. As you will see later, consideration of “motion” allows for or causes some very interesting concepts.
Energy is the measure of a system’s ability to perform “work”. It exists in many forms…potential, kinetic, etc. The law of conservation of energy tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be converted from one form to another. These separate forms of energy are not conserved, but the total amount of energy is conserved. If you drop a baseball from your roof, the ball has kinetic energy the moment it starts to move. Just before you dropped the ball, it had only potential energy. As the ball moves, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Likewise, when the ball hits the ground, some of its energy is converted to heat (sometimes called heat energy or heat kinetic energy). If you go through each phase of this scenario and totaled up the energy for the system, you will find that the amount of energy for the system is the same at all times.
Light is a form of energy, and exists in two conceptual frameworks: light exhibits properties that have characteristics of discrete particles (eg. energy is carried away in “chunks”) and characteristics of waves (eg. diffraction). This split is known as duality. It is important to understand that this is not an “either/or” situation. Duality means that the characteristics of both waves and particles are present at the sametime. Light is a photon of an atom that emits energy. We are all light based Energy beings composed of these fundamental particles.
So How would Special relativity work?
Frames of Reference
Einstein’s special theory of relativity is based on the idea of reference frames. A reference frame is simply “where a person (or other observer) happens to be standing”. You, at this moment, are probably sitting at your computer. That is your current reference frame. You feel like you are stationary, even though you know the earth is revolving on its axis and orbiting around the sun. Here is an important fact about reference frames: There is no such thing as an absolute frame of reference in our universe. By saying absolute, what is actually meant is that there is no place in the universe that is completely stationary. This statement says that since everything is moving, all motion is relative. Therefore the Universe is always flux and ever-changing.
The first postulate of the theory of special relativity is not too hard to swallow: The laws of physics hold true for all frames of reference.
The second postulate of the special theory of relativity is quite interesting and unexpected because of what it says about frames of reference. The postulate is: The speed of light is measured as constant in all frames of reference
When an object (with mass) is in motion, its measured length shrinks in the direction of its motion. If the object reaches the speed of light, its measured length shrinks to nothing. Only a person that is in a different frame of reference from the object would be able to detect the shrinking - as far as the object is concerned, in its frame of reference, its size remains the same. This phenomenon is referred to as “length contraction”. It means, for example, that as your car approaches the speed of light, the length of the car measured by a stationary observer would be smaller than if the car was measured as it stood still.
So in a summary: Time is the actualization of potentiality in aggregate continuity. that is to say that it is the realization of local and non-local perception simultaneous. in layman’s terms,time is when you experience a phenomenon, and register the change in environment. the human mind experience’s an averaging of temporal changes and what we perceive is the median phenomenon. during a flight or fight response perception is increased and the buffer is reduced causing the temporal illusion, known as time dilation. time dilation is the ability of time to expand and contract according to perception. this is why time must be measured in both terms of actual time and perceived time, and the average between the two is what we call aggregate continuity, or the unification of time as it actually is, and time within our own minds.
It is important to understand how time works to understand how time dilation is truly possibly.
” In general, time dilation occurs when thought processes speed up while memory is left intact (if memory is not intact, you often sense something happened but you do not know what or how much subjective time has passed). It is interesting that time dilation occurs along a spectrum. Normally, we may feel like an hour of subjective time has passed after only five minutes of objective time. However, there does not seem to be a limit concerning how much we can potentially dilate subjective time, and some mind enhancing/altering drugs have the property of taking time dilation to the extreme. What seems like entire lifetimes can be experienced in a few minutes”
If you are more visual this is an excellent video on the subject:
My fiance helped lol
hope this helps clear things up for you!
That was a doozy, the eclipse energy is definitely getting to me so much spaciness…o.O
You can’t play guilty or victim your whole life and expect things to change.
We ALL have to stand up and be strong.
We all have to acknowledge that no one is above or below, no one is right or wrong. We are all equals. We have all failed each other throughout the earth’s history.
Leave the past in the past. Let’s work on a future.